Publish/subscribe endpoints

Preliminary materials: Pub/sub architecture.

Introduction

Endpoints are the entities that send messages to topics or receive them from queues. In a typical architecture, a single endpoint will represent a particular application participating in pub/sub processes but there is no requirement that there be only one endpoint per application and users are free to create as many endpoints as necessary.

There are several types of endpoints:

REST, AMQP, WebSockets and Java JMS need to be registered by administrators before they can take part in publish/subscribe. Endpoints of this kind can be configured to let them publish messages, subscribe to them or both.

Zato services do not need to be managed by administrators because they can always publish to all topics.

File transfer are used to listen for changes in directories of choice, i.e. they are file listeners that publish information to topics about new or changed files, optionally including their contents. File listeners can publish messages to topics but they cannot subscribe to them.

AMQP endpoints subscribe to messages published to topics, i.e. each time a message is published to a topic with an AMQP subscriber, a remote AMQP broker will receive its contents.

Java JMS endpoints let Java-based systems seamlessly integrate with Zato in terms of both publications and subscriptions, from the perspective of JMS clients Zato acts as a JMS broker.

Managing endpoints in web-admin

Each endpoint defined in web-admin has a type, name and role. Each is identified by its name which is unique among all other endpoints no matter which type they are of.

For REST, SOAP and Java JMS endpoints, API credentials, such as HTTP Basic Auth ones, must be assigned to them. Applications connecting to Zato topics and queues will in run-time use the credentials for authentication.

WebSockets-based endpoints must point to a WebSockets channel which will in turn optionally specify a security definition to be used for authentication.

A role of Publisher, Subscriber or Publisher/Subscriber may be assigned to each endpoint. This dictates if an endpoint may, in principle, publish or subscribe to topics.

Access to topics is based on patterns, that is, a single access pattern may cover multiple topics, possibly including ones that do not exist at the time of an endpoint’s creation.

It is customary to arrange topic names and their respective permission patterns in hierarchical structures, going from the broadest elements to the more specific ones using a slash / for the separator, akin to file paths in a filesystem.

Special symbol that can be used in patterns are:

Symbol Name Notes
* Asterisk Matches zero or more characters, excluding the slash
** Two asterisks Matches zero or more characters, including the slash

Supposing there are several topics:

Topic Notes
/usa/va/richmond Events related to Richmond, Virginia, USA
/usa/va/washington Events related to Washington, Virginia, USA
/customer/address/changed Notifications about changed addresses of customers in a company’s CRM
/customer/telephone/changed Notifications about changed telephones of customers in a company’s CRM
/customer/telephone/deleted Notifications about deleted telephones of customers in a company’s CRM

It is possible to create various access patterns depending on the intended purpose.

Pattern Notes
/usa/va/richmond Because it does not use special symbols, this matches that exact topic name
/usa/** Matches any topics related to the USA, i.e. any that start with this prefix
/usa/va/* Matches any topics related to Virginia, USA. Currently, it would match Richmond and Washington but should another topic be added, such as /usa/va/arlington, it will be also matched in run-time even if this topic does not exist at the time when the endpoint was created or last edited.
/usa/*/richmond Matches any Richmond city in the USA
/customer/** Matches all topics related to customers in the CRM
/customer/*/changed Matches all topics related to changes in customers
/customer/telephone/* Matches all topics related to changes or deletions in customers

Note that patterns are specified separately for publications and subscriptions and that there must be a matching role for the pattern to be taken into account at all, i.e. if an endpoint has publication rights to a topic but its role is a Subscriber then it will not be able to publish the message despite correct access rights. This can be used to temporarily revoke publication or subscription rights without a need to redefine permissions.

In the example below, a REST endpoint called CRM is of a Publisher/Subscriber role. It uses credentials defined in a HTTP Basic Auth security ‘pubapi’. It is allowed to publish to all topics matching pattern /usa/va/* but it is not allowed to subscribe to messages from these topics. It is, however, allowed to both publish and subscribe to messages matching pattern /customer/*/changed.

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Creating an endpoint and giving it rights to publish is sufficient for this endpoint to begin publications immediately, there is no other step needed. To receive messages, however, a subscription needs to be created first.