New REST programming examples

As we are preparing to release Zato 3.2 soon, all the programming examples are being rewritten to showcase what the platform is capable of. That includes REST examples too and this article presents a few samples taken from the documentation.

For fuller discussion and more examples - check the [documentation]/en/docs/3.2/index.html.

Calling REST APIs

  • All data can be prepared as dict objects - this includes the payload, query string parameters, path parameters and HTTP headers too

  • Zato will fill in patterns in URL paths, e.g. if the path is /api/billing/{phone_no} then the code below will substitute 271637517 for phone_no and the rest of the parameters will go the query string

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

    # Zato
    from zato.server.service import Service

    class SetBillingInfo(Service):
        """ Updates billing information for customer.
        def handle(self):

        # Python dict representing the payload we want to send across
        payload = {'billing':'395.7', 'currency':'EUR'}

        # Python dict with all the query parameters, including path and query string
        params = {'cust_id':'39175', 'phone_no':'271637517', 'priority':'normal'}

        # Headers the endpoint expects
        headers = {'X-App-Name': 'Zato', 'X-Environment':'Production'}

        # Obtains a connection object
        conn =['Billing'].conn

        # Invoke the resource providing all the information on input
        response =, payload, params, headers=headers)

        # The response is auto-deserialized for us to a Python dict
        json_dict =

        # Assign the returned dict to our response - Zato will serialize it to JSON
        # and our caller will get a JSON message from us.
        self.response.payload = json_dict

Accepting REST calls

  • Use self.request.payload to access input data - it is a dict object created by Zato out of the parsed JSON request
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Zato
from zato.server.service import Service

class LogInputData(Service):
    """ Logs input data.
    def handle(self):

        # Read input received
        user_id = self.request.payload['user_id']
        user_name = self.request.payload['user_name']

        # Store input in logs'uid:%s; username:%s', user_id, user_name)

Reacting to REST verbs

  • Implement handle_<VERB> to react to specific HTTP verbs when accepting requests

  • If the service is invoked with a verb that it does not implement, the API client receives status 405 Method Not Allowed

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Zato
from zato.server.service import Service

class MultiVerb(Service):
    """ Logs input data.
    def handle_GET(self):'I was invoked via GET')

    def handle_POST(self):'I was invoked via POST')

Request and response objects

  • All data and metadata is available via self.request and self.response attributes. Security-related details are in

Request object:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Zato
from zato.server.service import Service

class RequestObject(Service):

    def handle(self):

        # Here is all input data parsed to a Python object

        # Here is input data before parsing, as a string

        # Correlation ID - a unique ID assigned to this request

        # A dictionary of GET parameters

        # A dictionary of POST parameters

        # REST method we are invoked with, e.g. GET, POST, PATCH etc.

        # URL path the service was invoked through

        # Query string and path parameters

        # This is a method, not an attribute,
        # it will return form data in case we were invoked with one on input.
        form_data = self.request.http.get_form_data()

        # Username used to invoke the service, if any

        # A convenience method returning security-related details
        # pertaining to this request.
        sec_info =

Response object:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Zato
from zato.server.service import Service

class ResponseObject(Service):

    # Returning responses as a dict will make Zato serialize it to JSON
    self.response.payload = {'user_id': '123', 'user_name': 'my.user'}

    # String data can also be always be returned too,
    # e.g. because you already have data serialized to JSON or to another data format
    self.response.payload = '{"my":"response"}'

    # Sets HTTP status code
    self.response.status_code = 200

    # Sets HTTP Content-Encoding header
    self.response.content_encoding = 'gzip'

    # Sets HTTP Content-Type - note that Zato itself
    # sets it for JSON, you do not need to do it.
    self.response.content_type = 'text/xml; charset=UTF-8'

    # A dictionary of arbitrary HTTP headers to return
    self.response.headers = {
        'Strict-Transport-Security': 'Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=16070400',
        'X-Powered-By': 'My-API-Server',
        'X-My-Header': 'My-Value',